In their most common sense, the terms thought and thinking refer to conscious cognitive processes that can happen independently of sensory stimulation. Their most paradigmatic forms are judging, reasoning, concept formation, problem solving, and deliberation. But other mental processes, like considering an idea, memory, or imagination, are also often included. These processes can happen internally independent of the sensory organs, unlike perception. But when understood in the widest sense, any mental event may be understood as a form of thinking, including perception and unconscious mental processes. In a slightly different sense, the term thought refers not to the mental processes themselves but to mental states or systems of ideas brought about by these processes.
Various theories of thinking have been proposed. They aim to capture the characteristic features of thinking. Platonists hold that thinking consists in discerning and inspecting Platonic forms and their interrelations. It involves the ability to discriminate between the pure Platonic forms themselves and the mere imitations found in the sensory world. According to Aristotelianism, to think about something is to instantiate in one's mind the universal essence of the object of thought. These universals are abstracted from sense experience and are not understood as existing in a changeless intelligible world, in contrast to Platonism. Conceptualism is closely related to Aristotelianism: it identifies thinking with mentally evoking concepts instead of instantiating essences. Inner speech theories claim that thinking is a form of inner speech in which words are silently expressed in the thinker's mind. According to some accounts, this happens in a regular language, like English or French. The language of thought hypothesis, on the other hand, holds that this happens in the medium of a unique mental language called Mentalese. Central to this idea is that linguistic representational systems are built up from atomic and compound representations and that this structure is also found in thought. Associationists understand thinking as the succession of ideas or images. They are particularly interested in the laws of association that govern how the train of thought unfolds. Behaviorists, by contrast, identify thinking with behavioral dispositions to engage in public intelligent behavior as a reaction to particular external stimuli. Computationalism is the most recent of these theories. It sees thinking in analogy to how computers work in terms of the storage, transmission, and processing of information.
Various types of thinking are discussed in the academic literature. A judgment is a mental operation in which a proposition is evoked and then either affirmed or denied. Reasoning, on the other hand, is the process of drawing conclusions from premises or evidence. Both judging and reasoning depend on the possession of the relevant concepts, which are acquired in the process of concept formation. In the case of problem solving, thinking aims at reaching a predefined goal by overcoming certain obstacles. Deliberation is an important form of practical thought that consists in formulating possible courses of action and assessing the reasons for and against them. This may lead to a decision by choosing the most favorable option. Both episodic memory and imagination present objects and situations internally, in an attempt to accurately reproduce what was previously experienced or as a free rearrangement, respectively. Unconscious thought is thought that happens without being directly experienced. It is sometimes posited to explain how difficult problems are solved in cases where no conscious thought was employed.
Thought is discussed in various academic disciplines. Phenomenology is interested in the experience of thinking. An important question in this field concerns the experiential character of thinking and to what extent this character can be explained in terms of sensory experience. Metaphysics is, among other things, interested in the relation between mind and matter. This concerns the question of how thinking can fit into the material world as described by the natural sciences. Cognitive psychology aims to understand thought as a form of information processing. Developmental psychology, on the other hand, investigates the development of thought from birth to maturity and asks which factors this development depends on. Psychoanalysis emphasizes the role of the unconscious in mental life. Other fields concerned with thought include linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, biology, and sociology. Various concepts and theories are closely related to the topic of thought. The term "law of thought" refers to three fundamental laws of logic: the law of contradiction, the law of excluded middle, and the principle of identity. Counterfactual thinking involves mental representations of non-actual situations and events in which the thinker tries to assess what would be the case if things had been different. Thought experiments often employ counterfactual thinking in order to illustrate theories or to test their plausibility. Critical thinking is a form of thinking that is reasonable, reflective, and focused on determining what to believe or how to act. Positive thinking involves focusing one's attention on the positive aspects of one's situation and is intimately related to optimism.

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  1. M


    Thoughts? View:
  2. L

    Worcester Bosch Heatslave Boiler pressure issue... any thoughts...?

    Greetings. I have an external Worcester Bosch Heatslave boiler and have a question about pressure. The boiler pressure was set to 1.5 during a recent visit by a plumber (as it seemed to have dropped and was hovering between the green and red zone) . A few days later I turned the thermostat down...
  3. B

    Deposits - your thoughts and what you do as a professional.

    Hi all, I'm really here with the agenda of getting other peoples thoughts on charging deposits. To date I usually charge a third of my labour to hold a date for a customer. I've had no issues until recently where 2 of my prospective clients have tried to negotiate a lower deposit or change the...
  4. Z

    Thoughts on Prostel unvented cylinder horizontal

    Just looking at getting an unvented cylinder. Screwfix do an RM cylinder called Prostel. Anybody had experience with these. £830 for 250l horizontal.
  5. G

    Thoughts on this flue

    Installed 2 days ago, Worcester 4000. Haven’t seen anything like this before, any thoughts. Personally I would have gone horizontal with an offset bend in the roof space ( to get minimum distance from boundary) and terminated at the gable end.
  6. A

    Opinion on thoughts for solving pipe problem

    I am currently trying to solve a problem in terms of laying pipes in a screed floor. The old copper pipework under the screed is leaking and so I am going to abandon it and lay new pipe. I can't box them in or run from the ceiling. So my solution, after some research, was to bring in a new flow...
  7. A

    URGENT No LED display on honeywell cm921 batteries all replaced & Checked. Ant thoughts pls

    No LED information on a Honeywell cm921. Batteries all changed & checked, any ideas pls. Can they be repaired or is it a new one required
  8. D

    Hydramax (Aqualisa) mixer - thoughts on this?

    Having only really dealt with bar mixers and electric showers this would be a first for me. So my mixer shower started going hot and cold every now and then, and eventually started to leak frequently from the middle, so replaced the cartridge, which has solved the 2 issues. This is the bit...
  9. C

    Thoughts please

    been going back and forth with manufacturer and installer for a week, stone resin shower tray 1400x800 with a fracture 220mm long , all installation instructions were followed, manufacturer says installer error (over tightened screws) also a smaller fracture on the opposite side that hasn’t...
  10. A

    Thoughts on quote of boiler replacement

    Hi guys, been quoted 1550 for direct replacement of baxi combi 105he with a baxi 830, I know the engineers.. So paying roughly 500 for Labour. What do you think? Plus this is with thermostat fitting etc. I thought about 1300/1400.
  11. T

    Thoughts on the Hive thermostatic valves ?

    I’ve been asked about installing some Hive Thermostatic heads to a combi system. I wondered what’s people’s opinions on them, firstly from an installation point of view and secondly from a users view ? The customer has a two up two down type of house with a ideal logic 24kw boiler just been...
  12. Laura Hardy

    Cold towel rail any thoughts

    So here goes. My bathroom towel rail is cold. All other rads in the house are hot and on both upstairs and downstairs. The feed pipe going into the towel rail is nice and hot but the rail itself is cold. It's has a teeny weeny bit of temp change for about an inch along the bottom rung but I...
  13. G

    Intergas boiler thoughts

    We heard about Intergas boilers from a family member who has just had one installed. The gas fitter he used raves about them saying how reliable they are. What are you forum members thoughts on them? . Only having 4 moving parts is appealing. The Rapid 32 model looks good value at around £700...
  14. W

    Some thoughts on how to get a quote from a contractor

    A couple of thoughts on how to get a quote, some people seem to be struggling lately: 1. Ask friends and family for a recommendation, you’ll have more faith in them and them more in you. 2. Give as much detail as you can in an email before the day of the site visit, send plans...
  15. C

    Burglar Alarms - Any thoughts?

    The company that deals with my house and contents have just said that none of their 'panel' of underwriters will quote this year and I need to get an alarm fitted. Dunno why they've suddenly decided this after about twenty years of taking my premiums and never having to pay out a penny in claims...
  16. Lumen

    everflo Stainless 180L System Fit Unvented Hot Water Storage Cylinder your thoughts?

    Hey chaps, I just had a plumber quoting me on indirecr unvented hot water cylinder install. His quote is very competitive and when asked what cylinder the install is for I've been told it's everflo Stainless 180L System Fit Unvented Hot Water Storage Cylinder (this I'd imagine) Second best...
  17. Ian Howe

    Pipes through boards thoughts

    10mm pipes for radiator going to underfloor, acceptable or not?
  18. J

    Bath renewal thoughts ?

    having a light hearted debate with a mate about a job he’s on. Renew a bath. Existing bath is tiled down on to and it’s about 30mm lower than the panel for the new bath. Customer doesn’t want any tiles removed. So would you fit new bath up to the tiles and cut the panel.. Or Fit bath at the...
  19. K

    Renewing inhibitor - thoughts

    So I get the question occasionally "Should the inhibitor be replaced on a regular basis?" And I'm not sure exactly how I feel about it. Yes if you've got an open vented system, lost water, had work done or have to top up the system occasionally or are not sure of any of the above. However...
  20. N

    Thoughts on this system

    Thoughts on this system, pro's, con's, positives, blasphemy and warrented abuse? Asuming flow through combi is less than desired for filling bath / shower vs an unvented system... Why would or wouldnt you? sorry if its in the wrong forum, but thought it better in general as its not heating...
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