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Proportionality is a general principle in law which covers several special (although related) concepts. The concept of proportionality is used as a criterion of fairness and justice in statutory interpretation processes, especially in constitutional law, as a logical method intended to assist in discerning the correct balance between the restriction imposed by a corrective measure and the severity of the nature of the prohibited act. Within criminal law, it is used to convey the idea that the punishment of an offender should fit the crime. Under international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict, proportionality and distinction are important factors in assessing military necessity.

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  1. W

    Is this Low Loss Header suitable?

    I am looking to replace my existing Vaillant heat-only boiler with a new Vaillant ecotec plus 630 system boiler (30kW). I have a megaflo hot-water cylinder, a central heating system (serving 21 radiators) and an orangery built last year (6m x 4m) with underfloor heating. Through running some...
  2. C

    Is a leak sealer ever a suitable solution for a new system?

    I assume the answer is no, but if this fixes the issue I know it will be what my builders sub contractor plumber will do. Therefore, before he is allowed near the system I would like to either find the issue or eleimnate parts of the system that do nto have an issue. As you will note from my...
  3. C

    Is there a suitable replacement connection for this flexi-pipe?

    I'm struggling to post any words here. Apologies for the brevity - can anything be done with the attached to save me having to replace the full flexi-pipe which is inaccessible at the far end? Thanks Regards Carl
  4. L

    Is a pool heat exchanger suitable for a communal heating system?

    Hello all and Merry Christmas, We are in the process of planning the replacement of our 50-year old heating boiler serving a residential block of 12 flats with a total of 60 radiators. It is a vented single-pipe heating system, which has not been properly maintained, and we only recently...
  5. F

    Combi-boiler plus Thermal heat store - problem and suitable replacement recommendation

    Hi, sorry to bother you all with this but I am really struggling to find a suitable combi-boiler replacement and a knowledgeable heating engineer to discuss options. Ive tried to note as much relevant details below - apologies if its too long or irrelevant. Any help most gratefully received...
  6. T

    Suitable replacement for a Planus macerator?

    I live in a converted Victorian pub, and our kitchen and downstairs bathroom are at basement level. Behind the downstairs toilet there’s a (Broysan?) Planus macerator that handles the waste from the toilet, bathroom sink, shower (which is raised), kitchen sink, dishwasher and washing machine...
  7. J


    Hi i keep getting a leak through a ball isolation valve on a hot pipe. This is on a thermal store where this pipe can be 80c. I have gone through 3 isolation valves in two years. The plastic seal inside the valve breaks down. What vakve should i use? Gate?
  8. moonlight

    Will this gas cock be suitable?

    I went to look at a oil to gas Aga conversion yesterday late afternoon. I could smell the gas when I arrived. The gas cock is leaking. Too late in the evening, so just capped off temporally. The conversion looks like a Teddington conversion like this but with a different isolation valve. This...
  9. C

    Any primatic cylinders suitable for a solid fuel fire?

    TLDR; Why are modern primatic cylinders unsuitable for use with an uncontrolled heat source? The scenario: I have a friend (really) that needs a new HW cylinder fitting. Currently there is a 40ish year old 36x18 primatic type cylinder in place (I assume that’s what it is as it is ‘self...
  10. B

    Aircon outside wall grill

    Hi, What outside wall “grill” is suitable for a mobile aircon unit exhaust please. I’m using 150mm plastic piping. Many thanks
  11. I

    Steam generator outlet to steam room - Suitable pipe and fittings

    What are the best pipes and fittings to carry steam from a 2.8kW steam generator to a steam cabin for a short pipe distance of 400mm? Thinking on the technical, the pipework would have a low internal resistance (smooth inside) and full bore so as not to reduce the steam out. I noticed the...
  12. N

    Fitting a new mixer shower,Is my cylinder suitable?

    Hi,I am refitting my bathroom and decided to replace my old triton electrical shower with a Mira mixer shower.I know I need a pump,probably a twin impeller and positive head as I have about 3ft below the bottom of the tank to where the pump will be fitted which in turn will be about 2 ft above...
  13. P

    Is this product suitable as a solvent cement for abs pipes?

    I have this at home: Glue and I need to solvent-weld these abs drain piping: pipe and elbow Can I avoid purchasing solvent cement? Or would that present some problem? Thanks.
  14. M

    Could anyone advise me what this is, and a suitable like for like replacement.

    Could anyone advise me a suitable like for like replacement, ideally one that bolt into exact same pipework..? It is "pumped" Many Thanks Matt
  15. D

    Advice on suitable thermostat and switch

    I've an old (50yrs) oil boiler that is manually switched on and off using a light switch outside the boiler room. The only thermostat is the one built into the boiler. This is usually set fairly high and never touched. The light switch is use to switch on and off the boiler as heat is needed...
  16. D

    Are oil boilers suitable for smaller properties - eg an annexe?

    Hello all. We will likely have to move soon so we can find a new home which has room to have a separate annexe built for mum in law. As it'll be out in the sticks, the fuel supply will most likely be oil. A few questions on this, please: 1) Do they make small oil boilers - ideally combi types...
  17. B

    Suitable Pump Replacement

    My existing pump is on the way out. It's a Grundfos ALPHA 15-60 130 and about 16 years old. If I use the Grundfos replacement guide it comes out with an ALPHA2 15-60 130 as a suitable replacement. My system is quite large (22 radiators) and I have found, even after balancing, that the...
  18. M

    Suitable combi boiler or unvented?

    Hi all. A 4 bed house with one main bathroom and one ensuite. Would you always try to install an unvented HW cylinder or a decent sized combi? Also, going from a low pressure system to a sealed system do you advise customer on the risks of possible leaks or what? Thanks.
  19. J

    suitable smart control for my upgraded system

    I have a Halstead condensing boiler in the kitchen supplying HW and heating. There is only one heating zone. I have a heatmeiser thermostat/ controller in the living room. Ive never been able to get a good balance of heating over the whole house. I am now changing all my rads for column types...
  20. A

    Will this brazing torch be suitable for general potable water plumbing?

    I salvaged a Bullfinch autotorch brazing kit from someone who wanted to get rid of it (Autotorch Brazing Sys : Autotorch brazing kit). It came with a 4 bar propane canister. I was wondering if this could be used for domestic plumbing of copper pipes? E.g. as brazing torches provide higher...
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