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Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body of soil, called the pedosphere, has four important functions:

as a medium for plant growth
as a means of water storage, supply and purification
as a modifier of Earth's atmosphere
as a habitat for organismsAll of these functions, in their turn, modify the soil and its properties.
Soil is also commonly referred to as earth or dirt; some scientific definitions distinguish dirt from soil by restricting the former term specifically to displaced soil.
The pedosphere interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere. The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, translates to ground stone in the sense fundamental stone, from the ancient Greek πέδον 'ground, earth'. Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). Accordingly, soil scientists can envisage soils as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases.Soil is a product of several factors: the influence of climate, relief (elevation, orientation, and slope of terrain), organisms, and the soil's parent materials (original minerals) interacting over time. It continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical, chemical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion. Given its complexity and strong internal connectedness, soil ecologists regard soil as an ecosystem.Most soils have a dry bulk density (density of soil taking into account voids when dry) between 1.1 and 1.6 g/cm3, while the soil particle density is much higher, in the range of 2.6 to 2.7 g/cm3. Little of the soil of planet Earth is older than the Pleistocene and none is older than the Cenozoic, although fossilized soils are preserved from as far back as the Archean.Soil science has two basic branches of study: edaphology and pedology. Edaphology studies the influence of soils on living things. Pedology focuses on the formation, description (morphology), and classification of soils in their natural environment. In engineering terms, soil is included in the broader concept of regolith, which also includes other loose material that lies above the bedrock, as can be found on the Moon and on other celestial objects.

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  1. T

    Non-Standard pipe connection - please help!

    Hi, I have an opening on the 'manifold' (I think that's what its called) on my soil pipe. It appears to be a non-standard size - about 51mm internally. I'm trying to connect a 40mm floplast solvent weld pipe, and can't find a boss adaptor that even nearly fits. I can't cut a new hole above...
  2. L

    Can the bottom section of this soil stack be turned?

    I'm a DIYer and have a problematic toilet setup to fix: The waste pipe was installed too high for waste to flow out from a standard toilet spigot, so I want to install a wall-hung toilet on a frame to get some extra height. To put it where I want it though, I'll need to rotate the bottom...
  3. M

    2 soil stacks 1 vent - will it work?

    Hi, I'm wondering if this is allowed or will work in the UK. We currently have all our waste water connecting to a single vented stack. The pipes from the toilets etc connect to the vertical stack via a horizontal pipe as you would expect. I'm about to renew all the soil pipes. We have 2 entry...
  4. I

    soil stack adaptor query

    Hi Oracles of all things plumbing, I have to replace a cast iron soil stack which is simple enough, done a few up here in Scotland, however, client wants to retain the 3" toilet waste as he does not want an enlarged hole making in a newly rendered wall, which 110 to 75mm fitting is best? trying...
  5. T

    Job in Leyton E10 - Cast Soil Stack Replacement

    I need a quote to replace a soil stack ( cast ) in Leyton e10. The stack is already in plastic at the bottom. There also needs to be amendment to branch to accomodate a change of position of the bathroom in the upstairs flat. BTW - this is one up/ one down flat arrangment. There is access to...
  6. D

    Soil pipe base - solution acceptable?

    Had a collapsed/cracked collar on the 90deg angled piece that my soil pipe sits in which is leaking water so has needed replacing. Access has been through the outside wall to inside as the soil pipe is internal and boxed in. Now I was expecting the plumber to fit a ‘rest bend’ but a 90 degree...
  7. B

    Soil pipe cross flow between sink and shower

    Attached is a ground floor picture of the soil pipe in our home. There was originally a toilet which has now been permanently capped off and you can also see a sink waste pipe attached. My plan is to drill out one of the 50mm sockets directly opposite the current sink waste for a new 40mm...
  8. jklondon

    Noisy Soil Stack - Any suggestions please

    We have a bathroom where drainage runs across the house to soil stack. After shower especially in night when there is high temperature difference between inside and out there is clicking noises that impacts our bedroom (1) and more annoyingly our 3rd olds room (2)! I am wondering what could be...
  9. W

    Soil vent - reduced pipe size

    Following a first-floor bathroom remodel done poorly by a plumber in our house a couple of years ago I have stripped everything out and I'm starting over and plan to install our original 'vision' carefully and properly. I found that the 110mm vent stack was terminated just below a hole in the...
  10. P

    How to connect to this soil pipe

    I took the boxing out from around this toilet yesterday to find this old style clay(?) or concerete (?) soil pipe. The existing toilet has a 90 deg spigot on the back but obviously the replacement is a nomal modern one. Can I just break the solid seal around the old spigot, whip it out and then...
  11. D

    Adding soil stub stack to existing branch external to internal detail

    Morning all, as always can never find an exact existing thread / discussion where I don't feel like I'm making one too many assumptions. Can I get a quick sense check on the below, always wanting to work 1 step ahead, eventually planning to add an en-suite to my existing loft conversion. Got...
  12. paul72

    Soil vent in bedroom!!!

    I currently undertake a plethora of jobs for a client and they have states that they have an unpleasant smell emanating from their bedroom. On inspection there is a box section with 2 circular vents on each side where the horrendous odour is coming from. It looks like during construction of the...
  13. T

    Internal soil pipe to toilet

    Hi firstly no expert so apologies in advance but have a little bit of knowledge ( sometimes dangerous I know, lol) The wife is wanting to change the house around a bit, refurbishing old en-suite which is at front of house but does not have a toilet at the moment, so obviously would like one. So...
  14. G

    Strap boss leak between strap and pipe

    Hey all, I’ve got a new section of stack fitted but when I fitted the strap boss I was too keen to test it and it now slightly leaks where it meets the stack. I was wondering whether it’s worth trying to get it off and have another go or just replace the full piece (about 2 metres ) If I did...
  15. fango7

    Internal soil pipe leaking at join

    Hi all , Have a slight weeping leak on the underside of where soil pipe meets the tee join (seems like a little gap), at bottom ,after toilet upstairs is flushed ,highlighted area is in yellow leaking. Hard to remove it seems tight , can I just get away with putting some ct1, fernox lsx or...
  16. C

    Hard to access soil pipe with AAV

    Hi An idiot Bathroom fitter has cut down a soil pipe and fitted an AAV valve, then placed a built in bathroom cabinet with the soil pipe in the corner unit making the only easy way to access anywhere near the soil pipe by reaching up from where the kicker board goes. You can see from the photo...
  17. G

    Boss connected to soil pipe at 45 degrees

    Hi I'm in process of completing a loft conversion and need some advice on the location of a boss adapter for the shower waste. Can a boss adapter be fixed to a 4" soil pipe at 45 degrees as shown in the pictures? My main concern is that the entry to the soil pipe is on the side and with the...
  18. C

    Soil Vent Connection

    I have to connect the UPVC pipe to the ground. There's a connection of sorts there already. The rubber gasket there has perished but I don't seem to easily find a replacement. Even if I did, the old UPVC pipe I have doesn't fit tightly in there and presumably never did. My question is, does...
  19. bfalp1

    Is a soil vent mandatory?

    My builder has removed the soil vent pipe stating that an AAV would suffice. As I have had some troubles with them I have started to question what they say so I have done a bit of digging. From the internet I don't seem to find a clear answer about this. Could you please clarify this for me? Do...
  20. A

    50mm waste run to soil stack

    Hi, When running 50mm waste to the stack, how do I get it so the 50mm does not have to be so far from the wall? As the offset at the stack dictated by the boss on the soil pipe. Hopefully this makes sense! Please see my picture which hopefully helps. I bought a 135 deg bend thinking I could...
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