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Indian removal was the United States government policy of forced displacement of self-governing tribes of Native Americans from their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River – specifically, to a designated Indian Territory (roughly, present-day Oklahoma). The Indian Removal Act, the key law which authorized the removal of Native tribes, was signed by Andrew Jackson in 1830. Although Jackson took a hard line on Indian removal, the law was enforced primarily during the Martin Van Buren administration. After the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830, approximately 60,000 members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations (including thousands of their black slaves) were forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands, with thousands dying during the Trail of Tears.Indian removal, a popular policy among white settlers, was a consequence of actions by European settlers in North America during the colonial period and then by the United States government (and its citizens) until the mid-20th century. The policy traced its origins to the administration of James Monroe, although it addressed conflicts between European and Native Americans which had occurred since the 17th century and were escalating into the early 19th century (as white settlers pushed westward in the cultural belief of manifest destiny). Historical views of Indian removal have been reevaluated since that time. Widespread contemporary acceptance of the policy, due in part to the popular embrace of the concept of manifest destiny, has given way to a more-somber perspective. Historians have described the removal of Native Americans as paternalism, ethnic cleansing, or genocide.

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  1. M

    Francis Pegler shower valve removal

    Help please can anyone tell me how to remove this older model Francis Pegler shower backplate, there are no signs of a grub screw or a socket headed screw. It cant be rotated either because of the border tiles. Thanks
  2. J

    Shower Hose Removal both ends

    Hi Trying to remove a shower hose as it leaking at both ends, but it's not unscrewing!! Used a spanner and pliers to no avail :-( Any ideas??? Thanks
  3. GabeBury

    Help with square thermostatic cartridge removal.

    Hello, I am trying to replace the cartridge but I can not see where is the grub screw, please find the picture and kindly advise how I can remove the cartridge. Regards
  4. J

    Help! Tap Valve Removal

    Hi All, I have this monobloc basin mixer tap in my bathroom. It was installed 11 years ago, but the hot valve has started to drip from the top around the tap head. Problem is I don’t know how to get to the valve. There are no grub screws visible and I’ve tried to remove the valve cover but it...
  5. E

    Boiler pipe work and filter removal

    We bought a new build. After 11 years the boiler had gone and we get a new one fitted. The pipework I want sorting out (like that from new build) as we are getting a new kitchen and boxing it in is a pain. The filter hangs very low down. Do we really need this? Pipework would hang down a lot...
  6. R

    Corroded tap removal

    Hi All, This is a rare visit to your forum for me as I try to avoid plumbing and get the pro's in however, even I can change a tap washer right? Well, apparently not! I removed the cap, undid the cross head screw and do you think the tap/knob would come off? Not on your life! I've tried a...
  7. K

    Concealed Shower Cartridge removal Help

    I am having issues with my Concealed Shower Valve, Its blending too hot, ive put this down to the shower cartidge probably needs a clean as its only been working ok for a year. Shower is fed on a 1.5bar pump with header tank. my main issue though is ive moved all the knobs and faceplate but to...
  8. R

    Should removal of old system boiler be complete inc tanks?

    Just bought a property that needs lots of work doing so decided CH to be the first to start with. Old system was 20yrs old so decided on a 35Kw Ideal boiler to be installed by a Gas safe installer. Despite fairly shoddy work in places the boiler seems to function OK but when I went into the...
  9. D

    Is this pipe lagging safe to remove?

    Ideally, I want to cut these redundant pipes out. I’m pretty sure this is hair felt insulation but I’m a sparky by trade so not familiar with pipe lagging. I do know pipe lagging often contained asbestos and as the house was built in 1890 and sporadically worked on ever since… could do with some...
  10. B

    No heat after radiator removal

    Good evening all, Today I removed a bedroom radiator and capped off the ends. I started with the full works - boiler switched off, drained system, removed radiator and then filled up the system. I then bled the radiators and returned the boiler pressure back to 1.5. Turned the boiler back on...
  11. P

    Dead leg problem? Outside tap removal, but pipes are underground...

    Hi all Got a very old looking outside tap at our house which is not in use. A plumber is visiting soon to do a bathroom refit, and whilst here will remove the tap and cap it off. I asked whether this would cause a problem with a "dead leg" and he said no, but I want to check with you guys...
  12. M

    Trial removal of second CH pump

    Been renovating my house and in the process improved insulation and removed quite a few rads. I've also installed more than half downstairs floor with underfloor heating which has it's own manifold with attached pump (UPS2) as supplied by the underfloor heating supplier. Boiler is sited...
  13. G

    Victorian Tap head removal

    Does anyone have any ideas how to get to the seat washer on this tap that is leaking badly at the spout. I'm assuming the gland part unscrews from the spout but I've tried this with condserable force but with no luck. I'm assuming the spindle is secured in and does not pull out. Any guidance...
  14. T

    Soil pipe boss removal.. Help

    OK so I've started and my original plan is looking good. Is the bottom of that boss push fit? Will brute force get it off? If not how am I going to cut it out .. is there a fabulous tool that will get in there between two joists and a wall. 🤯 Really don't want to be damaging kitchen underneath...
  15. G

    URGENT Removal of baxi back boiler now i have installed a combi and no heat upstairs

    i have relocated the pipes from the old boiler and remove the hot water and heating expansion pipes i have used the hot tank pipes to fix a small rad in the old airing room removed the pump and connected the flow and return from the boiler 5 out of eight rads d/stairs work the rest nothing this...
  16. B

    Can you help determine how to remove old shower valve, cross handle, no screws?

    Hello. I have an old shower valve that needs replacing. No product name, or set screw. It's got a cross handle with a diverter above the handle. My plumber thought it was similar to an American Standard T0646002.002 (except cross handle not a bar) but the insides are not the same. This was in...
  17. Farhanhaq

    Advice on old plumbing and heating system removal

    Hello, I have a commercial unit that hasn't been used for nearly 20 years. There is an old heating system and boiler in a room that powered the whole building. The system is large with a number of pipes going through out the building. I have no idea where to start with the removal of it...
  18. B

    Plastic drain pipe screwed access plug removal

    My house (built in the 1980s) has number of solvent welded screwed access plugs to clean the drain pipes in the bathroom, kitchen etc. They are similar to the polypipe one shown below but have a lower profile cross shaped grip which makes them difficult to remove and refit. Is there a special...
  19. L

    Bath Removal

    Trying to remove a bath...thought I had done the hard part with the chisel and the surround...but it simply will not budge...its plastic/fibreglass...can I just cut along the edge with a jigsaw ?? Any issues with dust from the cutting ? Thanks.
  20. W

    BBC tap head removal

    Hi, I am trying to replace the washers in a 1960's bathroom that has BBC (Barking Brassware Company) basin and matching bath taps fitted. Having difficulty in working out how to remove the tap handles that resemble a very chunky 4 pointed design. There's a small grub screw on one of the 4 sides...