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Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements and chronologically coincides with the Viking Age, the Christianization of Scandinavia and the consolidation of Scandinavian kingdoms from around the 7th to the 15th centuries.The Proto-Norse language had developed into Old Norse by the 8th century, and Old Norse began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid-to-late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse is found well into the 15th century.Old Norse was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse or Old West Nordic (often referred to as Old Norse), Old East Norse or Old East Nordic, and Old Gutnish. Old West Norse and Old East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them. For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden. Most speakers spoke Old East Norse in what is present-day Denmark and Sweden. Old Gutnish is sometimes included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations. It developed its own unique features and shared in changes to both other branches.The 12th-century Icelandic Gray Goose Laws state that Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders, and Danes spoke the same language, dǫnsk tunga ("Danish tongue"; speakers of Old East Norse would have said dansk tunga). Another term was norrœnt mál ("northern speech"). Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility while Icelandic remains the closest to Old Norse.

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  1. J

    Swapping toilet handle

    Just replaced lab b228 dual flush with the fluid master equivalent is there any way of fitting the old handle to the new system(spindle & locking piece are different) cheers
  2. D

    20 year old UFH - Upgrade?

    Hi, I have domestic water based UFH - 20 years old. House is 100 years old with 5 beds. UFH everywhere. Works okay but perhaps could be better. Top of house is coldest. I have newish worcester boiler(Greenstar 8000 life). System is on 4 different storeys, 5 manifolds and perhaps 18 loops...
  3. blawford

    Joining to old water pipe

    Just bought a (relatively) old house (1957) and the bathroom seems to be the original. Need to change over the taps on the cast iron bath and I'm not familiar with the pipework I am looking at or the most efficient way to join to something more modern (preferably flexible tap tails with...
  4. F

    Ideal Standard old pillar taps, how to remove cap

    Hi All, I have inherited a couple of leaky Ideal Standard pillar taps that are not in there current catalogue. I am trying to remove the caps to gain access to change the washers or whatever is needed but cannot find out how to. I have tried levering upwards with a sharp screwdriver and...
  5. 3

    New W-UFH how to combine with old system to avoid old rads coming on?

    Hello, I’ve had some work done in my house to redo a kitchen and replace damaged floors and while doing this I was convinced to install W-UFH since the floor was coming out anyway and there were some joist issues in the Victorian property. Previously I had about 9 radiators in my house, 2 of...
  6. J

    Old potable water pipe - connector needed

    Hi all, There is some old potable water in pipe on our land - the wife has just dug through it and I need a connector to fix the break. The problem is, I suspect the pipe is old, and its not something I have seen before... so details... Its black plastic External diameter (pipe thickness) is...
  7. T

    Best direct replacement for old Landis & Staefa Room Thermostat

    We have a very old Landis & Staefa room thermostat which I would like to replace with a simple like for like model. I cant see a model number on this so just have this image. Can someone recommend a suitable replacement please?
  8. T

    Replacing very old mixer tap

    Can an old mixer tap leak uncontrollably? The mixer tap in my kitchen is very old,maybe nearly 20 years. For the last year or so it has been leaking and getting worse. Get it replaced you say. Not as simple as that. The pipes into the house are very old lead pipes and years ago did leak where...
  9. R

    Can an old mixer tap leak uncontrollably?

    Can an old mixer tap leak uncontrollably? The mixer tap in my kitchen is very old,maybe nearly 20 years. For the last year or so it has been leaking and getting worse. Get it replaced you say. Not as simple as that. The pipes into the house are very old lead pipes and years ago did leak where...
  10. M

    Old old glowworm floor standing needs replacing?

    95 yr old parents have an ancient glowworm 40/48 floor standing boiler that sits in middle of bungalow and has vertical asbestos flue up through roof. The gas valve is dodgy so were looking to put in a new boiler..how disruptive would this be. Presume new radiators, pipework, outside wall...
  11. A

    Capping old hot and cold pipes

    Looking for some opinions on whether you should cap old hot and cold water pipes. A plumber I got to remove some old sinks from bedrooms has capped off the hot and cold pipes under the floor. I thought it didn’t quite seem like the best thing to do and thought he would completely remove the...
  12. R

    23 year old Vaillant Thermocompact needs replacing - flue problems?

    We built our detached house 23 yrs ago, having a Vaillant Thermocompact boiler with a Megaflo tank, and it's been excellent. The boiler sits in a room under the stairs, with the flue discharging out of the side wall (no windows or doors) at a height of around 2.5m from the ground. The...
  13. Drefsab

    Old boiler advice / issues

    Hi there I’m a tenant and after advice before trying to tackle what I think is an issue with my land lord. I’ve been in the property about 9 years now and despite numerous requests he’s not had the boiler tested, he’s said it has been but no one has been the the home to check it. It’s a really...
  14. R

    Should removal of old system boiler be complete inc tanks?

    Just bought a property that needs lots of work doing so decided CH to be the first to start with. Old system was 20yrs old so decided on a 35Kw Ideal boiler to be installed by a Gas safe installer. Despite fairly shoddy work in places the boiler seems to function OK but when I went into the...
  15. J

    New Boiler to replace a old Worcester 35CDi II

    Hi All, Last night i discovered my Worcester 35CDi II was leaking, I had a new expansion vessel fitted in may as the old one had failed along with a new PRV. I think it is probably about time to replace the boiler given it was installed when the house was built in 2002 so is approaching 20...
  16. F

    12 year old Vaillant Eco Tec Plus 415 keeps turning off

    Hello, can anyone advice me on my Vaillant Ecotec plus 415. The boiler starts up but switches off after a few minutes. If the temp dial is turned up then it makes a very loud banging and flapping sound. I was advised to get system flushed by one company and another said the boiler is old i...
  17. P

    Belfast sink - joining old waste to new 40mm trap and pipe

    Hi all We're having an old belfast sink fitted in our WC/utility room. We'd like to use the existing old waste; and by all accounts it'd be a pig's jacksie to remove even if we wanted to! The threaded section in the photo measures approx. 1.88" / 47.8mm outside diameter and 1.24" / 31.5mm...
  18. A

    Old radiator bleed valve key

    Does anyone know what key is needed for a bleed valve like this? None of the ones I have seem to work
  19. J

    Anybody recognise this old tap fitting

  20. C

    Replacing an old radiator with a fancy new vertical one

    Hope you can give me some advice. We have an old radiator in our living room which we'd like to replace with a nice vertical one. We're looking at the 1780 x 472mm Anthracite Double Oval Tube Vertical from Radiator Outlet. I have no idea how feasible this will be. The supply pipes are 10mm ones...