A keep (from the Middle English kype) is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars have debated the scope of the word keep, but usually consider it to refer to large towers in castles that were fortified residences, used as a refuge of last resort should the rest of the castle fall to an adversary. The first keeps were made of timber and formed a key part of the motte-and-bailey castles that emerged in Normandy and Anjou during the 10th century; the design spread to England, south Italy and Sicily. As a result of the Norman invasion of 1066, use spread into Wales during the second half of the 11th century and into Ireland in the 1170s. The Anglo-Normans and French rulers began to build stone keeps during the 10th and 11th centuries; these included Norman keeps, with a square or rectangular design, and circular shell keeps. Stone keeps carried considerable political as well as military importance and could take up to a decade or more to build.
During the 12th century, new designs began to be introduced – in France, quatrefoil-shaped keeps were introduced, while in England polygonal towers were built. By the end of the century, French and English keep designs began to diverge: Philip II of France built a sequence of circular keeps as part of his bid to stamp his royal authority on his new territories, while in England castles were built without keeps. In Spain, keeps were increasingly incorporated into both Christian and Islamic castles, although in Germany tall fighting towers called bergfriede were preferred to keeps in the western fashion. In the second half of the 14th century, there was a resurgence in the building of keeps. In France, the keep at Vincennes began a fashion for tall, heavily machicolated designs, a trend adopted in Spain most prominently through the Valladolid school of Spanish castle design. Meanwhile, tower keeps in England became popular amongst the most wealthy nobles: these large keeps, each uniquely designed, formed part of the grandest castles built during the period.
In the 15th century, the protective function of keeps was compromised by improved artillery. For example, in 1464 during the Wars of the Roses, the keep in the Bamburgh Castle, previously considered to be impregnable, was defeated with bombards. By the 16th century, keeps were slowly falling out of fashion as fortifications and residences. Many were destroyed in civil wars between the 17th and 18th centuries or incorporated into gardens as an alternative to follies. During the 19th century, keeps became fashionable once again and in England and France, a number were restored or redesigned by Gothic architects. Despite further damage to many French and Spanish keeps during the wars of the 20th century, keeps now form an important part of the tourist and heritage industry in Europe.

View More On
  1. DaluTulak

    Toilet keeps running, also what type of toilet is this?

    Hi, I fix what I can around the house myself and have fixed a few toilets but I need help with this one. This toilet keeps running and stopping, running and stopping, etc. I've cleaned the rubber flapper itself and at the point that it contacts the reservoir, so I don't think it's leaking from...
  2. Gazza9755

    Boiler keeps turning off

    Hi wonder if anyone can help. Had no issues last year. Have Valiant ecoTEC plus and Drayton thermostat. I have tended to leave thernostat and just turn boiler on when needed. Its showing 14 and when i set it higher sometimes it comes on sometimes it doesnt. Sometimes it starts and then...
  3. W

    Boiler keeps short cycling with only UFH is on

    Good morning, wondered if anyone can advise please on a resolution? My set up at home is that I have a 4-bed detached with 21 radiators (includes 4 towel rails), a 6m x 4m orangery/conservatory that was built last year with under-floor heating, and a Megaflo for storing hot water. The UFH...
  4. N

    Pcb keeps cutting out

    Hi, I've got a ferroli 901 boiler, I initially thought the pcb was at fault so bought a new one and I'm having the same problem ( has been connected correctly), I switch the boiler on, all correct leds light up, pump starts, fan starts, pilot fires up, then it shuts down, all lights go...
  5. F

    tile keeps slipping!

    hi all i was attempting to install the tiles today on the wall. if you look at the photo, i started at the pipe work as that was the most intricate. problem is, it kept slipping an inch, very frustrating. in the end i gave up and manged to save the adhesive (ready mix) I'm betting its something...
  6. B

    Water keeps running out of pipe?

    I’ve got this pipe outside which water is constantly coming out of the bottom as you can see. I’ve tried turning the blue fitting but it doesn’t stop it at all. I’ve got no idea why the PRV is there or what it’s for, can I just take it off & replace with a new one & turn it off on that?
  7. J

    Combi boiler keeps locking out

    Hi everyone. I was hoping someone here might be able to help me with a problem I have. After using our shower for around five minutes it seems to be causing the boiler to lock out. It’s a thermostatic mixer shower running from a Worcester Greenstar 30si combi boiler. Weirdly, this only seems...
  8. B

    Cistern keeps overflowing

    My cistern kept overflowing randomly was told it was probably caused by the bottom filling valve failing I purchased one and a plumber fitted it and tested it and all seemed well, we where away for a couple of weeks and came back and there was no evidence that it had been overflowing but after...
  9. PineGuy

    Wye strainer keeps getting blocked on boiler

    I have an 18 month old boiler that was installed with a forced hot water heat loop and a HW storage tank. About 4 times a year I need to clean the strainer. It becomes so blocked that the HW loop starts banging and the water temp at the taps goes way up so you can’t hold your hand in it. I...
  10. S

    Boiler pressure keeps dropping

    Hi Guys I have a combi boiler. I havent used it for over a year. However when I came back to the property I had to pour boiling water over the condensor pipe outside as it was frozen as I was unable to get the rads on. Which worked. So it heats up etc, no issues whatso ever. ( I am not using...
  11. D

    Hot water keeps running out

    Hi A few times my hot water has ran out but nobody has used the hot water all day and it’s always on at the emertion so we always have hot water! Any idea y this would happen?
  12. P

    Vaillant Ecotec plus 428 overactive. Keeps running in S7 and S8 mode.

    I have an open vented central heating system with a hot water tank. Both heating and hot water circuits have a motorised valve controlled by a timer. The timer for the central heating is always in the “on” position and is governed by a room thermostat. The boiler is a Vaillant Ecotec Plus 428...
  13. B

    Toilet keeps running?

    This toilet is constantly running water into the bowl. Am I right in having to remove the valve on the right & change the washer? The one on the left I can see the water keeps coming out of.
  14. S

    Potterton 80el Overheat stat keeps tripping

    Hi Guys, Have a customer who has a Potterton 80el and when running heating after a few hours the red overheat stat button at the bottom of the boiler pushes out and boiler wont fire up. Customer has said if they reset the button they heating could work for a few hours or for the whole day...
  15. Y

    Help please had this refit keeps leaking

    Hi please can anyone help had this bathroom reiffted as you can see it was knock through my shower is now were my old toliet door and window all blocked up the sink and toliet is were my old bath was .it's keeps leaking what do you think is causing it it drys over night but when I start using...
  16. B

    Shower keeps going hot & cold?

    My shower keeps going cold then stays like that for a couple of seconds then goes back to hot & this will keep happening the whole time while showering. It was happening on my previous shower mixer which I then changed to the Mira one I now have & it stopped doing it for a while but now it’s...
  17. F

    12 year old Vaillant Eco Tec Plus 415 keeps turning off

    Hello, can anyone advice me on my Vaillant Ecotec plus 415. The boiler starts up but switches off after a few minutes. If the temp dial is turned up then it makes a very loud banging and flapping sound. I was advised to get system flushed by one company and another said the boiler is old i...
  18. M

    ECV Keeps dripping, making cupboard humid

    Hi, my hot water system (50L Dux Proflo) has an ECV (expansion control valve) that was fitted in 2019, ever since then it drips pretty much after every shower or usage of the hot water, now normally this wouldn't be an issue but the system is in an interior cupboard which means the constant...
  19. tobiasuk

    Hot water pipe keeps bursting (2 kids and no heating in November)

    Hello everyone, I'm not a plumber, but I'm having an issue which keeps re-occurring and the engineers coming out to us do not seem to know why. So here is the story. We have a pressurised system. When our boiler was serviced, the engineer had to abort the service as he found the following...
  20. K

    UFH has its own pump that keeps running round the clock!

    Hi, I moved to a house recently where it is installed with city heating system. As I understand from past records, the original house had only radiators that were fed by a thermostat-controlled heat exhanger with a pump to circulate hot water. One of the previous tenants installed under-floor...
Creating content since 2001. Untold Media.

Some Stats

Latest member