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Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant HY-rəm yoo-LISS-eez; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877. As president, Grant was an effective civil rights executive who created the Justice Department and worked with the Radical Republicans to protect African Americans during Reconstruction. As Commanding General, he led the Union Army to victory in the American Civil War in 1865 and thereafter briefly served as Secretary of War.
Raised in Ohio, Grant possessed an exceptional ability with horses. Admitted to West Point, Grant graduated 21st in the class of 1843 and served with distinction in the Mexican–American War. In 1848, he married Julia Dent, and together they had four children. Grant resigned from the army in 1854 and returned to his family but lived in poverty. He joined the Union Army after the Civil War broke out in 1861 and rose to prominence after winning several early Union victories on the Western Theater. In 1863 he led the Vicksburg campaign, which gained control of the Mississippi River. President Abraham Lincoln promoted him to lieutenant general after his victory at Chattanooga. For thirteen months, Grant fought Robert E. Lee during the high-casualty Overland Campaign and at Petersburg. After Lee fled Petersburg, Grant defeated him at Appomattox. On April 9, 1865, Lee formally surrendered to Grant. A week later, Lincoln was assassinated and was succeeded by President Andrew Johnson, who promoted Grant to General of the Army in 1866. Later Grant openly broke with Johnson over Reconstruction policies; Grant used the Reconstruction Acts, which had been passed over Johnson's veto, to enforce civil rights for recently freed African Americans.
A war hero, drawn in by his sense of duty, Grant was unanimously nominated by the Republican Party and was elected president in 1868. As president, Grant stabilized the post-war national economy, supported Congressional Reconstruction, ratification of the 15th Amendment, and crushed the Ku Klux Klan. Under Grant, the Union was completely restored. He appointed African Americans and Jewish Americans to prominent federal offices. In 1871, Grant created the first Civil Service Commission, advancing civil service more than any prior president. The Liberal Republicans and Democrats united behind Grant's opponent in the presidential election of 1872, but Grant was handily re-elected. Grant's Native American policy was to assimilate Indians into the White culture; the Great Sioux War was fought during his term. Grant's foreign policy was mostly peaceful, without war, the Alabama Claims against Great Britain skillfully resolved, but his prized Caribbean Dominican Republic annexation was rejected by the Senate.
The Grant administration is traditionally known for prevalent scandals including the Gold Ring and the Whiskey Ring. However, modern scholarship has better appreciated Grant's appointed reformers and prosecutions. Grant appointed John Brooks Henderson and David Dyer, who prosecuted the Whiskey Ring. Grant appointed Benjamin Bristow and Edwards Pierrepont, who served as Grant's anti-corruption team. Grant appointed Zachariah Chandler, who cleaned up corruption in the Interior. Grant's administration prosecuted Mormon polygamists (1871), ****ographers, and abortionists (1873–1877). The Panic of 1873 plunged the nation into a severe economic depression that allowed the Democrats to win the House majority. In the intensely disputed presidential election of 1876, Grant facilitated the approval by Congress of a peaceful compromise.
In his retirement, Grant was the first president to circumnavigate the world on his tour, dining with Queen Victoria and meeting many prominent foreign leaders. In 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term. In the final year of his life, facing severe financial reversals and dying of throat cancer, he wrote his memoirs, which proved to be a major critical and financial success. At the time of his death, he was memorialized as a symbol of national unity. Grant was a modern general and "a skillful leader who had a natural grasp of tactics and strategy". Historical assessments of his presidency have ranked him low, 38th in 1994 and 1996, but Grant has moved up in recent years, to 21st in 2018 and 20th in 2021. Although critical of scandals and his role in the passage of the Comstock Act, modern historians have emphasized his two-term presidential accomplishments. These included the prosecution of the Klan, treatment of blacks as both human and American, an innovative Native American policy, and the peaceful settlements of the Alabama Claims and controversial 1876 presidential election.

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  1. C

    Grant Vortex Combi 21e no central heating

    Hi, I've recently put some heating/hot water pipes into the floor as there were exposed previously. On refit of the pipes i've gone to test the boiler functionality however, the central heating won't fire. The hot water works perfectly. There is no CH light on the boiler and the return...
  2. S

    How to connect a Saswell scu209led-tm1 output to a Grant Vortex boiler

    Hi Installed UFH Manifold, pump, Valve etc, connected to a Saswell scu209led-tm1 Connection Box. On the terminals marked "com" and "no" going to the Boiler. Which terminals on a Grant Vortex Boiler do these 2 connectors go too? Thanks in advance
  3. S

    Grant vortex eco oil boiler

    Recently needing to reset the little red button under the black cap on the boiler about 3 times a week. Always serviced annually. How can I stop this?
  4. J

    Run out of oil - lockout

    Hi all, I have recently run out of oil - the sensor in my kitchen is faulty so we’re completely empty. I’ve topped up my tank today to tide me over until delivery but my boiler (grant vortex eco wall hung) is still in lockout. I’ve read around and think I need to bleed the air from the system...
  5. V

    Grant Euroflame Oil boiler

    Hi i hope someone can help, a couple weeks ago boiler was not staying on so i thought i would check rads and i bled them and it fired up and was working for a couple of weeks. Now it fires up and cuts out after about 5 mins. I changed the 2 port valve as pretty much every year this fails. Still...
  6. J

    Grant vortex oil boiler thermostat temperature range

    I have a new Grant Vortex 15/26 oil boiler installed. It has a boiler thermostat with no numerical information, just a wedge graphic and covers about 1/3 of a turn. I wondered if anyone could give an indication of what the range of temperatures is likely to be (I don't want to set the boiler...
  7. N

    Grant Vortex 26 questions

    Hi guys, looking for some advise on my Grant Vortex 26. Had a big leak for the heat exchanger last year which ran down to the hot water pump and shorted it out. I replaced the pump with new and new olive on the offending pipe. But since then have a couple of issues. 1) The hot water tank sounds...
  8. S

    Worrying new boiler install from grant provider

    I recently had a boiler grant. My Green star Junior was replaced with an Ideal C30. The installer did not install a spiral magnaclean etc until I asked how to empty it after the boiler was fully installed. He then installed it after saying it wasn't necessary. The grant included one. The pre...
  9. C

    My grant 70 mk 2 heating pressure is constantly increasing in pressure. I have changed the heat exchanger as I believe that was the problem. Any ideas

    My grant 70 mk 2 heating pressure is constantly increasing in pressure. I have changed the heat exchanger as I believe that was the problem. Any ideas
  10. M

    Grant oil boiler not firing

    Builder at my house went through oil line has been repaired and oil purged back to boiler. Now it wont fire but it doesn't lock out either. Motor runs, fan runs. It goes to fire but then wont hold the flame. keeps trying to ignite every 15 seconds but never locks out. I have checked photocell...
  11. Robert Tyrrell

    URGENT Grant Combi 70 MK2 won't fire

    I've fitted a completely new burner to a Grant Combi 70 and the motor will not run (so consequently the burner won't fire) despite there being live 230v power to the control box. I have read the wiring diagrams and even spoken to Grant themselves but I cannot get to the bottom of the problem so...
  12. P

    Advice on Grant Vortex Mag-One filter unit service required

    Hello all, I have a Grant Vortex Mag-One filter which is leaking from one of the three caps on the top of the unit, I think its the central black one(see Photo attached) I have some new o-rings ready and the service instructions (see attached Photo) but am not sure on a couple of items and hope...
  13. V

    Any clever ideas for cleaning soot blockage from Grant Condensing Heat Exchanger?

    Anyone got any suggestion on how, if possible you could clear soot from the condensing heat exchanger of a Grant Vortex. Have many of you encountered blockages like this? Have any of you been able to avoid condemnation of the boiler the due to the stainless heat exchanger being blocked? What can...
  14. S

    Eon boiler grant upgrade extra costs

    I've been approved for a new boiler on the scheme. My old Greenstar 28i Junior mark 3 has been great. They're fitting a replacement Greenstar 30i. However there's some high charges extra for a new flue, new brackets, flashing kit and other bits and bobs. This is around £300. A few services ago...
  15. P


    Hi, Firstly, I am neither plumber nor heating engineer, just a willing diy, have a go guy. I have a Grant 26 oil fired combi boiler which started continually leaking water from the prv to the outside. The pressure was at 1 bar until the heating system cut in, when it would increase to 2.5 and...
  16. L

    Grant boiler leak, seal oring or something else?

    The on going saga of my Grant boiler problems continues! Have replaced the Wilo CH pump and now the HW pump is rattling. Before I had chance to change the HW pump the flow sensor cracked and leaked. Patched up and new one ready to change. Before I got to the pump or the sensor its sprung...
  17. M

    Grant 36e combi internal

    Had a call early today to a Grant 36e internal combi. Fault was no heating but had hot water. Turns out various engineers had visited and the customer has lost faith. Forts thing I noticed was an array of parts strewn across the floor, solenoid, oil pump, pressure switch, 2 air vents and a flow...
  18. N

    Grant Vortex 26 combi boiler help!

    Hi all, new to this forum and hoping to find some advice on my Grant Vortex 26 external combi boiler, Basically the heat exchanger sprang a leak, dripping on to the terminal box of the hot water pump below causing a short. I replaced the pump and the fibre washers on the heat exchanger, problem...
  19. M

    Grant Boiler starting up advice

    A bit of advice please. I have a Grant vortex eco 26 oil fired boiler with a riello RDB 2.2 burner on a gravity fed system. If it hasn't been used for a day or two, when it tries to fire up the fan starts and a few seconds later you can hear it attempt to fire, this lasts for a second or 2 and...
  20. SimonG

    Grant Vortex Air Boiler

    Anybody had any experience with a grant vortex air? Apparently a grant blue flame heat only boiler linked to a air source heat pump. Customer wants one!