Combined statistical area (CSA) is a United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) term for a combination of adjacent metropolitan (MSA) and micropolitan statistical areas (µSA) across the 50 US states and the territory of Puerto Rico that can demonstrate economic or social linkage. The OMB defines a CSA as consisting of various combinations of adjacent metropolitan and micropolitan areas with economic ties measured by commuting patterns. These areas that combine retain their own designations as metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas within the larger combined statistical area.
The primary distinguishing factor between a CSA and an MSA/µSA is that the social and economic ties between the individual MSAs/µSAs within a CSA are at lower levels than between the counties within an MSA. CSAs represent multiple metropolitan or micropolitan areas that have an employment interchange of at least 15%. CSAs often represent regions with overlapping labor and media markets.
As of March 2020, there are 172 combined statistical areas across the United States, plus another three in the territory of Puerto Rico.

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  1. M

    Combined vanity and concealed wc

    I have a cloak room that has a width of 1035mm that I am wanting to put a combined concealed toilet and vanity in. I was looking at a 550mm concealed toilet and 450 basin. But apparently the 450mm basin vanity of this model is incompatible with the 550mm concealed toilet unit. Has anyone managed...
  2. ameliacm

    Combined rain/sewage pipe hindering fresh air

    Hi there, Apologies for the mammoth post but my neighbours and I really need some advice... I recently purchased a flat that was built in 2016. The apartment is still under the NHBC 10yr warranty. Since moving in, I discovered that the rainwater pipe that runs through my winter garden balcony...
  3. A

    Smelly combined pipe running through winter garden balcony

    Hi there, I recently purchased a flat that was built in 2016. The apartment is still under the NHBC 10yr warranty. Since moving in, I discovered that the rainwater pipe that runs through my winter garden balcony at one end of the property is connected to a combined water/sewage system with the...
  4. M

    Will Building Control permit a combined rainwater / sewage system?

    Our Victorian house's rainwater down-pipes are connected to the foul-water sewer. In order to accomodate new wider French windows I want to move the existing soil stack. When they see the plans or site do you think Building Control will want to alter the existing rainwater arrangements? All the...
  5. F

    Combined vent and cold feed

    Hi guys Is it normal for the cold feed pipe from the f&e tank to be combined with the open vent? The cold feed connects to a 22mm tee one end is the vent the other cold feed to rads I thought the vent connects to ch flow and the feed to ch return? Thanks in advance
  6. A

    Combined waste to stack query

    Hi. I wish to combine the wastes from my bath and shower (Both 40mm) at the point they go out through the wall, then a 1.5 - 2 meter run externally across to the soil stack, with the 32mm sink waste dropping in about 250mm from soil pipe. Do I have to use 50mm waste externally for this? Not may...
  7. A

    Combined bath/shower wastes

    Hi. If I want to connect bath and shower wastes so they come out of the same pipe to the soil stack, what size does it have to be? 50mm? I've read that I need and anti-syphon valve too, as the shower waste run will be over 2 meters, under the bath. Do the bath and shower wastes have to be 40mm...
  8. B

    Arezzo Instant boiling water tap - No hot water input

    Hi, I've bought an Arezzo Matt Black Instant Boiling Water Kitchen Tap (Includes Tap, Boiler + Filter) from Victorian Plumbing to install in my summer house which i'm converting into a bar. As there is only one cold water source coming into the building i thought the boiling water tap would...
  9. Z

    Combined rainwater and soil stack?

    Hi, we have moved our upstairs bathroom so need to put a new soil stack on the outside wall. In the place where we want to put it is a rainwater pipe with a "bucket style" opening at the top, (sorry I don't know the correct term), because it is a flat-roof property so it catches the water from...
  10. T

    Connector for combined bath overflow and supply

    I need advice on a water inlet pipe for a combined bath overflow and supply. I have uploaded photos. On one side is the attachment i need. In the attached pics one side of the fitting has the connector I need. It's missing from other side. Also how do you remove the fitting on left side? Looks...
  11. exedon2

    Oil fired aga combined feed and vent

    Re-boilering large property found existing 45kw oil boiler and oil aga shares same feed tank Aga is on a combined feed and vent My inclination is to change it thoughts?
  12. R

    Creating combined feed & vent

    Hi I have blocked cold feed into the central heating. I've tried system cleaner and using mains pressure but I cant shift the blockage. Unfortunately I can't cut out the blocked piece of pipe either as it's below the tiled kitchen floor. So the last option is can I combine the feed and vent...
  13. C

    Has anyone fitted a combined bath trap and pop up waste like this one, who is manufacturer? Thanks

  14. B

    Combi boiler combined with immersion heater using solar PV

    Hello, I have solar panels (PV not thermal) on my roof which generate a lot more electricity than I use, but no batteries. My combi boiler has just broken and I need a new one. I was wondering how feasible it would be to get an immersion heater installed as well as a new combi boiler and an...
  15. M

    combined toilet bidet back flow prevention

    customer would like combined toilet bidet fitted, spray is fitted to the pan, not hand held hose, she has unvented system. does anyone know what back flow prevention can be used ? are check valves on supplies to the mixing valve sufficient ? wras advice seems unclear for unvented systems. thanks...
  16. M

    Combined direct vented hot water cylinder

    Hi, I have a combined direct vented hot water cylinder installed in my flat and it works on economy 7. Just recently I have noticed that when I open a hot tap the water didn't come out warm and also after about 2 minutes the cylinder or pipework to it started juddering. Just in case the heating...
  17. M

    Combined feed and vent with unvented cylinder

    Got a job today to take out vented cylinder and replace with unvented indirect cylinder (i’m G3 qualified). Only problem is the system has a strange set up. It’s combined feed and vent S plan system. Heating zone valve is on the flow and pump and hot water zone valve on return. My issue is that...
  18. Inverness

    Acv oil combined hit water and heating

    hi guys, anyone experienced acv boiler? Went to one today and the blending valve that's comes off it is leaking so I'm needing to replace it. there's a secondary bronze pump linking into it and a cold main so this must be linked for the hot water? But why would there be a tmv on the hot outlet...
  19. R

    Expansion Vessel Combined Boiler

    Got a weird one, no water on on valve and tested integrity using LDF and all fine. Drained down system and left drain off open and pumped to around 1 bar. It’s not holding any pressure but not showing any other of the normal symptoms of a broken membrane. My thoughts are vessel but I’m not...
  20. P

    Combined UFH and radiator system

    Hi guys, probably a silly question but in my new extension I have water UFH connected to my combi which runs the radiators in the rest of the house. Although both are controlled separately do they use the same water? What I mean by this is if I put inhibitors in a radiator will it also enter the...
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