buying

Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system or network that allows trade as a market.
An early form of trade, the Gift economy, saw the exchange of goods and services without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. A gift economy involves trading things without the use of money. Modern traders generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later of credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade involving more than two traders is called multilateral trade.
In one modern view, trade exists due to specialization and the division of labor, a predominant form of economic activity in which individuals and groups concentrate on a small aspect of production, but use their output in trades for other products and needs. Trade exists between regions because different regions may have a comparative advantage (perceived or real) in the production of some trade-able commodity—including production of natural resources scarce or limited elsewhere. For example: different regions' sizes may encourage mass production. In such circumstances, trade at market prices between locations can benefit both locations.
Retail trade consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a very fixed location (such as a department store, boutique or kiosk), online or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption or use by the purchaser. Wholesale trade is traffic in goods that are sold as merchandise to retailers, or to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.
Historically, openness to free trade substantially increased in some areas from 1815 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Trade openness increased again during the 1920s, but collapsed (in particular in Europe and North America) during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Trade openness increased substantially again from the 1950s onwards (albeit with a slowdown during the oil crisis of the 1970s). Economists and economic historians contend that current levels of trade openness are the highest they have ever been.

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  1. C

    Service old boiler vs buying new

    Hi everyone! Parents not used the boiler since 2013/2014, since installing a new wetroom for them they have now decided its worth getting the boiler running again. The only reason it has not been used i so long is the the zone valve kept getting stuck (would have fixed this myself if i knew!)...
  2. M

    Considering buying an Ariston Lux 6L for undersink installation.

    Hi, the Lux 6L needs 1bar pressure in the manual, but I want to gravity feed it from the hot water line - given that we waste more that 6L of cold getting hot from the tank - that would be about 0.4 bar. Is that enough for an unvented heater? Intenting to seal it to expand back into hot feed pipe.
  3. S

    Buying a boiler to fit existing pipework

    Hello I have a valiant eco tech pro 286-33 which isn’t quite 10 years old , and after repairing it several times I’ve now accepted I’m flogging a dead horse and I need a new one . Trying to keep costs down I would like to shop around and source my own boiler but it occurs to me that if the...
  4. L

    Nerrad tapex kit worth buying

    Hi has anyone used this kit , im thinking of updating from mono block spanners and basin wrench that ive been using for 30 years so owe me nothing!! as you get older things get harder so anything that makes life a bit easier is always welcome thanks all
  5. K

    Buying a new van advice

    I'm going self employed soon and I am in need of a van. I've seen a pretty good deal of Monthly payments of £319 Deposit of 3.5k Finance at 2% Credit amount of 17.5k with a total amount payable of 22.6k This includes VAT which I'm not going to be VAT registered. Its on a new van. The main...
  6. P

    Advice around buying designer radiators

    Hi Guys I'm new to this platform and trying to do some market research for my start up company poshrads.co.uk and reach out to potential tradesmen/plumbers My question is how often are you finding customers are asking for designer radiators as to a standard convector standard rad if so where...
  7. C

    Where to start when buying a boiler?

    Since buying our house in Leeds, It's become apparent that we are having more hassle than its worth with out boiler and have agreed to put some of our savings aside to buy a new one. We know we need a Combi Boiler but have no idea what brands we need to be looking at in regards to how expensive...
  8. moonlight

    Customer buying own invented cylinder.

    I have a customer who's neighbour works at a plumbers merchants. He has told my customer it is better to have an external expansion vessel as lots of his customers at the merchants have said they have had problems with internal ones. Have any of you had problems with internal? One more thing...
  9. Dan

    Last tool you bought, next tool you're buying?

    What was the last tool you added to your arsenal? And what's the next you're considering to get?
  10. leelister6

    Customer buying boiler

    Seems to be more and more customers asking me to fit a boiler they've bought. Where do you all stand on this? Had one or two asking me to do them a list of what they need and they'll get it on tinternet, I tell em to order someone to fit it while they're at it!
  11. P

    Buying tools as an apprentice (tax refund?)

    Hello, I'm a first year apprentice wanting to buy my own tools so I can eventually start doing foreigners on weekends. I know if you're self employed you can claim the tax back. So what I want to know is if i can claim tax back as a emoloyeed apprentice. Im on £3.40 an hour so dont pay...
  12. H

    Buying toilets with old fashioned siphons

    Hi I am looking to buy a number of toilets for rented flats. I don't want the new type of flush as when they go wrong I will get a huge water bill ( I pay the water bill). On the old siphons the only thing to go wrong was a split diaphragm which just meant the toilet wouldn't flush. Does...
  13. U

    Buying materials in bulk

    Hi everyone. New to the forum I'm interested to know if anyone buys materials in bulk and how you go about it. Either buying in bulk direct from local merchants with discounted prices or buying online. My local merchants don't seem too interested in offering better rates buying in bulk, how...
  14. Stanios

    Buying a new van

    Seasons greetings! Have just enough saved money now to get a new van going for transit connect swb Found a good deal online built to order 11.5k for trend ex vat but delivery is 10 weeks.. Looked at vans elsewhere that I can buy and drive, even low mileage are over £11000. Im confused why...
  15. rpm

    Thinking of buying a Caddy? - mpg result.

    Spent a very nice long weekend with sister on her canal boat around Leeds and I`ve just worked out the mpg for the 516 miles round trip at 51.6 mpg, the journey there was a painful 6.5 hrs at an average of 38.5 mph and the return trip took 4hrs with average speed of 62.5 mph. Considering I was...
  16. L

    Buying rads online

    Looking for a site which lets you choose the delivery date. Reason being I'm hoping to get them delivered to a relatives (GULP) on the weekend when they're in!! :willy_nilly: Plus I'd be interested in any brand recommendations you guys have, was looking at stelrad and quinn just now. I only...
  17. R

    Buying a new build house

    Evening all. For the past 8 years I've been renting houses but it's getting frustrating having to keep moving. After a messy and highly costly divorce several years ago I swore id never buy another house but I've decided that Kate is a keeper so I'm taking the plunge again. The best deal seems...
  18. R

    Buying a second hand car

    I'm looking to upgrade my sensible family man mondeo. Looking to spend a maximum of 10k. I've got three kids so need a bit of space. My head says get a Ford S-max. But I can't stop looking at range rover vogues and BMW x5. I've never really been a fan of boring cars and the mondeo has bored me...
  19. M

    Buying a boiler - Who to go with?

    Hi all, my boiler is on it's way out so i'm looking into getting a new one but for the life of me i just can't decide who best to go with so i came here to hopefully seek some advice. So far i've had a couple of quotes from local plumbers for 2.2k and 1.8k to supply and fit a Logic Plus and...
  20. C

    Buying a water softener...

    Hi I've recently purchased my first home and have had a combi-boiler fitted. I'm now wanting to install a water softener as my water is hard in the Wiltshire area. I am looking to go for the Kinetico 2020c and I think that the HF model is the best option for me. However I'm looking at buying it...
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